In her early career Christine Greenhalgh undertook empirical research directed towards a range of questions of public policy interest relating to employment and unemployment, wage discrimination, external trade performance, and the changing balance between manufacturing and services. In later years she focused her research interests on intellectual property and innovation, and acted for several years as Economics Research Director of Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre. Much of her empirical work has involved deriving new datasets, often involving detailed computer matching of information about persons or firms from various sources. During her career she has been an academic advisor to the Treasury, the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, and the UK Intellectual Property Office. In 2010 she published a textbook with her former colleague Mark Rogers of Harris Manchester College, with Princeton University Press titled: Innovation, Intellectual Property, and Economic Growth. The book covers the following topics: What drives innovation? How does it contribute to the growth of firms, industries, and economies? And do intellectual property rights help or hurt innovation and growth? Following retirement from teaching Greenhalgh has examined the innovation and intellectual property problems facing emerging economies and until 2018 served on the board of the Asia Pacific Innovation Conference.
**Christine's profile image is a detail from the portait of her that is currently in St Peter's College, Oxford. The artist is Tom Croft. For more information about the artist, please visit www.thomascroft.co.uk**
PUBLICATIONS I ARTICLES IN MAJOR REFEREED JOURNALS
'A labour supply function for married women in Great Britain', Economica, 44, August 1977.
'Male labour force participation in Great Britain', Scottish Journal of Political Economy, November 1979.
'Participation and hours of work for married women in Great Britain', Oxford Economic Papers, 32 (2) July 1980.
'Male female wage differentials in Great Britain: is marriage an equal opportunity?' Economic Journal 90, December 1980.
'The taxation of husband and wife; equity, efficiency and female labour supply', Fiscal Studies, 2 (2) July 1981.
'Work history patterns and the occupational attainment of women', (with M. Stewart) Economic Journal September 1984.
'The occupational status and mobility of men and women', (with M. Stewart) Oxford Economic Papers, March 1985.
'The effects and determinants of training', (with M. Stewart) Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 49 (2) May 1987. This paper has been re-published in The Economics of Training, Vol.2 Empirical Evidence, eds. O. Ashenfelter and G.Lalonde, Elgar Reference Collection: International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, vol. 65, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar 1996.
'Innovation and trade performance in the U.K.', Economic Journal, Vol 100 No.400, 1990.
'Innovation and export volumes and prices a disaggregated study', (with P. Taylor and R. Wilson). Oxford Economic Papers, January 1994.
'The role of career aspirations and financial constraints in individual access to vocational training', (with G. Mavrotas). Oxford Economic Papers, October 1994.
'Job training, new technology and labour turnover', (with G. Mavrotas). British Journal of Industrial Relations Vol. 34 No. 1, March 1996.
'Intellectual property, technological advantage and trade performance of UK manufacturing industries' (with G.Mavrotas and R. Wilson) Applied Economics Vol. 28 1996.
'Adult vocational training and government policy in France and Britain', Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol. 15 No.1: Knowledge, Skills and Competitiveness, Spring 1999.
‘Jobs for the skilled: How technology, trade and domestic demand changed the structure of UK employment’, (with M Gregory and B Zissimos) Oxford Economic Papers Vol. 53 No.1, Jan. 2001.
'Technological activity and employment in a panel of UK firms', (with D. Bosworth and M. Longland). Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 48 No.3, August 2001.
‘Structural change and the emergence of the new service economy’ (with Mary Gregory) Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics Vol. 63 2001 Special Issue: The Labour Market Consequences of Technical and Structural Change.
‘Intellectual property in UK firms: Creating intangible assets and distributing the benefits via wages and jobs’ (with Mark Longland) Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics Vol. 63 2001, Special Issue: The Labour Market Consequences of Technical and Structural Change. This paper has been republished in Intellectual Property Rights: Critical Concepts in Law, Volume I, edited by David Vaver, London: Routledge, 2006
‘Does an employer training levy work? – The incidence of and returns to adult vocational training in Britain and France’ Fiscal Studies June 2002.
‘Why does market capitalism fail to deliver a sustainable environment and greater equality of incomes?’ Cambridge Journal of Economics Volume 29 No. 6, Special Issue on Economics for the Future, November 2005.
‘Running to stand still? – The value of R&D, patents and trade marks in innovating manufacturing firms’ (with M Longland) International Journal of the Economics of Business Vol. 12 (3) November 2005.
‘The value of innovation: The interaction of competition, R&D and IP’ (with M Rogers) Research Policy Vol. 35 May 2006.
‘The Value of Intellectual Property to Firms and Society’ (with Mark Rogers) Oxford Review of Economic Policy, volume title Intellectual Property, Winter 2007.
‘Intellectual property enforcement in smaller UK firms – findings from a survey in 2009-10’ in The WIPO Journal Vol. 2 no. 1, 2010 (with R Pitkethly and M Rogers).
‘Trade marks and performance in services and manufacturing firms: Evidence of Schumpeterian competition through innovation’ (with M. Rogers), Australian Economic Review, Vol. 45 no.1, 2012.
‘Have trademarks become deceptive?’ (joint author with E. Webster), The WIPO Journal, Vol. 6 (2), Spring 2015.
‘Science, technology, innovation and IP in India - new directions and prospects’ (sole author) in Economic Change and Restructuring, Volume 49, Issue 2-3, August 2016, Special Issue on Innovation, firm strategies and competitiveness: Policies and strategies in a country comparison perspective, pp.113-38, available online at DOI: 10.1007/s10644-015-9165-7.
‘Empirical studies of trade marks – the existing economic literature’ (joint author with Philipp Schautschick) in Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Vol. 25 (4) 2016, pp. 358-390, available online at DOI:10.1080/10438599.2015.1064598.
II BOOKS and PAMPHLETS
Prof. Greenhalgh’s most important book is titled Innovation, Intellectual Property and Economic Growth, jointly authored with the late Prof. Mark Rogers, see http://press.princeton.edu/titles/9221.html. This is an advanced undergraduate/graduate text published by Princeton University Press in spring 2010. It has been translated into Chinese and published by the Intellectual Property Publishing House (IPPH), which is linked with China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO). The first half of the book covers the microeconomics of invention, innovation and diffusion, including the role of intellectual property, and its impact on the market value of firms and on productivity. The second half covers the macroeconomic theory of technology and growth, evidence of the impact of innovation on the external trade and growth performance of countries, the impact of innovation on technology and jobs, and domestic and international policy for innovation and intellectual property. Outline lecture slides were developed by the authors and can be downloaded from the above webpage for development by lecturers.
Other Books and Pamphlets
Unemployment – Special Issue (edited with R. Layard and A. Oswald, Oxford Economic Papers Volume 35 Number 4, 1983. The Causes of Unemployment (edited with R. Layard and A. Oswald) Oxford University Press 1983.
Employment and Structural Change in Britain: Trends and Policy Options, (with M. Gregory and A. Ray) Employment Institute 1989.
Intellectual Property Research: a review of the economic and socio-legal literature, (with P. Hayward). Report commissioned by C. Caswill, Research Director of the ESRC. Published by ESRC March 1994.
Vocational Training - Special Issue (edited with M. Gregory and J. Treble) Oxford Economic Papers Volume 46 Number 4, October 1994.
The economics of intellectual property: a review to identify themes for future research (with P Dixon). Report commissioned by the Intellectual Property Advisory Committee of the UK Patent Office and published on their website, November 2002.
Innovation and Intellectual Property – Issues for Debate. Policy Brief for the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. May 2007.Distributed to all participants and speakers, including the policy advisors of four major Presidential candidates, at a SIEPR Policy Forum titled Innovation Policy for the Next Presidency held in June 2007.
Innovation and Intellectual Property – Special Issue (edited with Jonathan Haskel and Christian Helmers) Oxford Economic Papers Volume 65 Number 5, July 2013.
III BOOK CHAPTERS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINOR JOURNALS
'Price behaviour in a retail grocery submarket', (with D. Metcalf) British Journal of Marketing, Autumn 1968.
'Income differentials in the Eastern region of Ghana', (sole author) Economic Bulletin of Ghana, Vol. 2 (3) 1972.
'Labour supply in Great Britain; theory and evidence', (with K. Mayhew) in Z. Hornstein et al. (eds.) The Economics of the Labour Market, H.M.S.O 1981.
'The training and experience dividend', (with Mark Stewart) Employment Gazette, August 1982.
'Determinants of labour supply', (sole author) Economic Review 4(3) January 1987.
'Why manufacturing matters', (with M Gregory) Employment Institute Economic Report, Vol. 4, No. 8 October 1989. This report drew the attention of the press and the BBC 'Today' programme.
'Why manufacturing matters directions for industrial policy', (with M. Gregory). In Improving Britain's Industrial Performance, edited by J. Philpott, Employment Institute 1991.
'Trade performance and innovatory activity in Britain', (with B. Suer, P. Taylor and R. Wilson). In External Imbalances and Policy Constraints in the 1990s, edited by C. Milner and N. Snowdon, Macmillan, 1992.
'Workforce training in the Thatcher era: market forces and market failures', (with G. Mavrotas). Shorter version in a special issue of International Journal of Manpower, Vol.14 No.2/3 1993; full length version reprinted in The Market for Training, edited by R. McNabb and K. Whitfield, Avebury 1994.
'The British economy, the state and the motor industry', (with A. Kilmister). Ch.2 of The Factory and the City, edited by D. Harvey and T. Hayter, Mansell/Cassell 1993.
'Why Manufacturing Still Matters' (with Mary Gregory) Employment Policy Institute Economic Report Vol.8 No.5 August 1994; also published as Ch. 6 of Working For Full Employment, ed. J. Philpott, Routledge 1997.
'Supply side puzzles', (sole author) New Economy Vol.2 No.2 Summer 1995.
'International trade, de-industrialisation and labour demand: an input-output study for the UK 1979-90' (with Mary Gregory). For 20th Annual Conference of the International Economics Study Group, September 1995. Published as Ch. 4 of J. Borkakoti and C. Milner (eds.) International Trade and Labour Markets Macmillan, St. Martin's Press 1997.
'Labour productivity and product quality: their growth and inter-industry transmission in the UK 1979-90' (with M. Gregory). Paper presented to the European Economic Society in Toulouse, September 1997 and NIESR Conference February 1998. Published as Ch. 3 of Productivity, Innovation and Economic Performance eds. R. Barrell, G. Mason and M. O'Mahoney, NIESR/CUP 2000.
‘Intellectual Property, Competition and the Value of UK Firms’ (with M Rogers), in C Peeters and B Van Pottelsberghe (eds.) Economic and Management Perspectives on Intellectual Property Rights, Palgrave, 2006.
‘Market Value of UK Intellectual Property: Manufacturing, Utility and Financial Services Firms’, (with M Rogers), in D Bosworth and E Webster (eds.) The Management of Intellectual Property, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar 2006.
‘Use of Intellectual Property by the UK Financial Services Sector’ (with M Rogers), in D Bosworth and E Webster (eds.) The Management of Intellectual Property, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar 2006.
‘Intellectual Property Activity by Service Sector and Manufacturing Firms in the UK, 1996-2000’, (with M Rogers), in H. Scarbrough (ed.) The Evolution of Business Knowledge, Oxford University Press, 2008.
The Economics of Intellectual Property Rights and Climate Change (with Paul Leonard and others) November 2009; a position paper of the London Intellectual Property Institute, sent to the Copenhagen meetings on Climate Change.
‘The social benefits and costs of trademarks and brands’ (sole author) in The Law of Reputation and Brands in the Asia Pacific, edited by Andrew Kenyon, Megan Richardson and Ng-Loy Wee Loon, Cambridge U.P. 2012.
IV GOVERNMENT REPORTS
The economics of intellectual property: a review to identify themes for future research (with P Dixon), Nov. 2002. Report commissioned by the Intellectual Property Advisory Committee of the UK Patent Office.
Intellectual Property Scoreboards for the UK in 2000 (with M Longland) Jan. 2003.
Trends and Distribution of Intellectual Property: UK and European patents and UK trade and service marks 1986-2000’, (with M Longland and D Bosworth), Sept. 2003.
An analysis of the characteristics of small and medium enterprises that use intellectual property (with M Rogers and C Helmers) for UK Intellectual Property Office, Sept. 2007.
An analysis of the association between the use of intellectual property by UK SMEs and subsequent performance (with M Rogers and C Helmers) for UK Intellectual Property Office, Sept. 2007.
Intellectual Property Enforcement in Smaller UK Firms (with J Phillips, R Pitkethly, M Rogers and J Tomalin) for SABIP and UK Intellectual Property Office, Oct. 2010.
Competition, Innovation and IP, (with M Rogers), for the UK Intellectual Property Office, March 2011. Available as Supporting Paper H to the Hargreaves Review of IP and Growth, at www.ipo.gov.uk/ipreview.
Trade Mark Incentives (with M Rogers, P Schautschick and V Sena) for the UK Intellectual Property Office, June 2011.
Trade Mark Cluttering (with G von Graevenitz, C Helmers and P Schautschick) for the UK Intellectual Property Office, Dec. 2011.
Intellectual Property and High-Growth Firms in the UK: A Report for the UK Intellectual Property Office (with Christian Helmers, Georg von Graevenitz, Irem Guceri and Philipp Schautschick) May 2013.
Cluttering and Non-Use of Trademarks in Europe (joint author with G. von Graevenitz and R. Ashmead), Report for the UK Intellectual Property Office, 2015/48.
V BOOK REVIEWS
Economica 1984 (August), pp. 336-8: Joint review of Women at Work: The British Experience by G. Joseph and Tackling Discrimination at the Workplace by B. Chiplin and P. Sloane.
Economica 1985 (February), pp. 134-5: Review of Women and Employment: A Lifetime Perspective by J. Martin and C. Roberts.
Journal of Economic Literature 1988 (June), pp. 725-6: Review of Women's Occupational Mobility by S. Dex.
The Economic Journal 1997 (May), pp. 804-5: Review of Human Capital, Employment and Bargaining, by R.A. Hart and T. Moutos.
The Economic Journal 2001 (November), pp.F801-2: Review of The Economics and Management of Intellectual Property: Towards Intellectual Capitalism, by O. Grandstrand.
Journal of Economic Literature 2018 (June). Review of Creativity without Law: Challenging the Assumptions of Intellectual Property edited by K. Darling and A. Perzanowski.
Journal of Economic Literature 2018 (December). Review of Innovation in the Asia-Pacific edited by T. Clarke and K.Lee.
VI OTHER DISCUSSION AND CONFERENCE PAPERS
'The changing structure of U.K. production, trade and employment: an analysis using input output tables 1974-84', (with M. Gregory, A. Ray). Univ. Oxford Applied Economics Discussion Paper 70, May 1989.
'Panel data methods v. seemingly unrelated regression estimates', (with G. Mavrotas and R. Wilson) University of Oxford Applied Economics Discussion Paper No. 109, April 1991.
'Investment in vocational education and training of adult workers', (sole author) paper for CEPR Workshop Human Capital and Post war European Economic Growth, Dublin, March 1993.
'Opening the 'black box': developments in the measurement of innovation activity for the econometric modelling of firm performance', (with D. Bosworth, P. Hayward and M. Longland), Applied Econometrics Association conference: Economics and Econometrics of Innovation, Strasbourg 1996.
'The impact of trade, technological change and final demand on the skills structure of UK employment' (with Mary Gregory and Ben Zissimos). Presented to the Royal Economic Society Conference, Warwick March 1998. This paper was written up in the national press by journalists attending the conference. Circulated as Leverhulme Programme Discussion Paper No.29, this is a longer background paper to the one published in Oxford Economic Papers, Jan. 2001.
'Adult vocational training in Britain and France - lessons for Britain?' (sole author) September 1998. Circulated as Leverhulme Programme Discussion Paper No. 31, Institute of Economics and Statistics.
‘Intangible assets and the market valuation of UK companies: evidence from fixed effect models’ (with D Bosworth and A Wharton) April 2000.
Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre, Reuters Discussion Paper No. 2. ‘Protecting intellectual property: British, European and American patents and trade marks of selected UK companies 1986-95' (with M Longland and D Bosworth), June 2000, revised December 2000.
Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre, Working Paper 01/01. ‘Running to stand still? – Intellectual property and value added in innovating firms’ (with M Longland) presented at the 9th Congress of the International Joseph A Schumpeter Society, Gainesville, Florida, March 2002.
Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre, Working Paper 01/02. ‘The value of innovation: The interaction of competition, R&D and IP’ (with M Rogers) for the Conference: What do we know about innovation? in Honour of Keith Pavitt, University of Sussex Science and Technology Policy Research Unit, November 2003.
‘Rich man, poor man, beggar man, thief – but who is who in the capitalist economy?’ (sole author) Department of Economics Working Paper No. 119, September 2002. Presented to the Economics for the Future Conference, University of Cambridge, September 2003.
‘Trade Marks and Market Value in UK Firms – A comparison of services and manufacturing firms’ (with M Rogers). Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre Working Paper No. 13/05, December 2005.
‘Trade Marks and Productivity in UK Firms’ (with M Rogers). Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre Working Paper No. 12/05 December 2005.
‘Trade Marks and Performance in UK Firms: Evidence of Schumpeterian Competition through Innovation’ (with M Rogers). Paper presented to the EC DIME Conference on Intellectual Property Rights for Business and Society, Birkbeck College, London, 2006.
‘Do firms that create intellectual property also create and sustain more good jobs? Evidence for UK firms, 2000-2006’ (with M. Rogers and P. Schautschick), May 2011. Available as Working Paper 566, Industrial Relations Section, Princeton University. http://www.irs.princeton.edu/faculty/wp.php
VII BOOK EDITING
I was the lead editor for Edward Elgar of a series under the theme New Horizons in Intellectual Property. The series published ten titles:
The International Political Economy of Intellectual Property Rights by Meir Perez Pugatch, 2004.
Software Patents: Economic Impacts and Policy Implications by Knut Blind, Jakob Edler and Michael Friedewald, 2005.
The Management of Intellectual Property edited by Derek Bosworth and Elizabeth Webster, 2006.
The Intellectual Property Debate: Perspectives from Law, Economics and Political Economy Edited by Meir Perez Pugatch, 2006.
Intellectual Property in China: Trips Compliance – Chinese and European Perspectives Edited by Shan Hailing, Paul Torremans and Johan Erauw, 2007.
Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Software Technologies by Elad Harison, 2008.
Imitation to Innovation in China by Yahong Li, 2010.
An Economic Perspective on Trade Mark Law by Andrew Griffiths, 2011.
The Economic Valuation of Patents: Methods and Applications, edited by Federico Munari and Raffaele Oriani, 2011.
Intellectual Property Rights and the Financing of Technological Innovation, by Carl Benedict Frey, 2013.